On-site pathology evaluations cut operating time, reduce costs of breast cancer care

Nearly one in three women who have breast cancer surgery will need to return to the operating room for additional surgery after the tumor is evaluated by a pathologist.

A new service at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center cuts that number drastically by having pathologists on-site in the operating suite to assess tumors and lymph nodes immediately after they are removed. Meanwhile, the surgeon and patient remain in the operating room until the results are back, and any additional operating can be done immediately.

Minimally invasive treatments to be showcased at SIR's 37th Annual Scientific Meeting

The Society of Interventional Radiology will feature minimally invasive scientific advances and new discoveries that may change the way dozens of diseases are treated at its 37th Annual Scientific Meeting March 24-29 at San Francisco's Moscone Center.

Dietary Supplement Linked to Increased Muscle Mass in the Elderly

The supplemental beverage, called Juven®, contains three amino acids, including arginine. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and are required for cell growth and repair. The amino acid arginine is especially important because it increases growth-hormone production, which causes the body to produce a critical protein called insulin-like growth factor 1, or IGF-1. This protein promotes growth and development and, as its name suggests, is similar in structure to the hormone insulin.

Excessive Salt Consumption Appears to Be Bad for Your Bones

The Japanese study found that older women who consumed the highest amount of sodium had more than four times the risk of a nonvertebral fracture, or fracture at any site other than the spine. That finding held true even after the researchers made adjustments for many other characteristics that could affect fracture risk, said the study's lead author, Kiyoko Nawata, PhD.

Weight Loss Improves Memory and Alters Brain Activity in Overweight Women

The results were presented today at The Endocrine Society's 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.

"Our findings suggest that obesity-associated impairments in memory function are reversible, adding incentive for weight loss," said lead author Andreas Pettersson, MD, a PhD student at Umea University, Umea, Sweden.

Previous research has shown that obese people have impaired episodic memory, the memory of events that happen throughout one's life.

Medical Marijuana Not the Answer for Teens With Chronic Pain, Doctors Say

Their commentary appears in the July issue of the medical journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

There are few studies on the risks and benefits of marijuana use to treat chronic pain in adults, and even less data on the pros and cons of using it to ease chronic pain in adolescents, the researchers say. They recommend that physicians screen teen chronic pain patients for marijuana use. While medical marijuana may help some specific conditions, its adverse effects, even with short-term use, can include fatigue, impaired concentration and slower reaction times, they say.

Healthy, Full-Term Babies Use a Different Stress Hormone Than Their Mother

"Fetal corticosterone, which is related to cortisol, could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress," says study lead author Katherine Wynne-Edwards, PhD, Jack Manns Professor of Comparative Endocrinology. Wynne-Edwards worked with clinical obstetrician/gynecologist Heather Edwards on the study.

"Since cortisol is found in much higher concentrations than corticosterone, it has received greater attention as an indicator of stress in both mothers and newborns."

New Findings Regarding DNA Damage Checkpoint Mechanism in Oxidative Stress

For example, few of us realize that, while our cells' DNA is constantly being damaged by reactive oxygen species (as well as by other forces), there are also complex mechanisms that constantly assess that damage and make repairs to our fragile genetic material at least 10,000 times a day in every cell in our bodies. The vital biochemical processes by which this constant DNA repair takes place are still only partially understood because of their complexity, speed, and the difficulty of studying complex interactions within living cells.

Sugar Overload Can Damage Heart

A single small molecule, the glucose metabolite glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), causes stress to the heart that changes the muscle proteins and induces poor pump function leading to heart failure, according to the study, which was published in the May 21 issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association. G6P can accumulate from eating too much starch and/or sugar.

Stress Test and Brain Scans Pinpoint Two Distinct Forms of Gulf War Illness

Using brain imaging that was acquired before and after exercise tests, the researchers studied the effects of physical stress on the veterans and controls. Following exercise, subgroups were evident. In 18 veterans, they found that pain levels increased after completion of the exercise stress tests exercised; fMRI scans in these participants showed loss of brain matter in adjacent regions associated with pain regulation.